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What does Hajj symbolize?
Hajj is a combination of different steps and rituals. Each step represents a different concept. To understand what does Hajj as a whole symbolizes, we will have to take a look into each one of them separately. Below are some of them.
1 Meekness and Love for God
Ihram is the dress that pilgrims must put on before performing the Hajj. The design of Ihram symbolizes two things. Number one, it represents the meekness of human beings before their true Lord. It reminds them that all that they have belongs Allah Almighty, Who has bestowed upon them and today when He has asked them to appear just in two sheets of clothes, they have no other option but to do so.
Secondly Ihram also represents the true love of Muslims for their God. It shows how Muslims forgo every comfort of life and spent day and nights under stars just to please Almighty and to seek His forgiveness.
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2 Unity and Nationhood
Hajj also symbolizes and strengthens the concept of unity and nationhood among Muslims from all over the world. At the eve of Hajj, Muslims from all over the world gathered at Mecca, wearing the same dress (Ihram) and performs the same rituals. All this promote a feeling of oneness in them.
3 Purpose of Life
Hajj also reminds Muslims the purpose of their creation and their lives on earth. It reminds them that they are here for a limited time and they will return to their true Almighty God one day where they will be asked for their deeds.
4 Reviving the Oath of Subjugation
Kissing the Black Stone (Hijr e Asswad) is like as if Muslims are reviving their oath of subjugation to Almighty Allah.
5 Love for Allah Almighty
Hajj also symbolizes Muslims love for their Almighty God. Like flies which in love of light fly around a candle, Muslims do the same in the shape of Tawaf e Kaaba. It is also a manifestation of Tawhid, the Oneness of God.
Source: Above answer is based on the information given in the book Islamic Concept of Life (Islam e Nazria e Hayyat) by Khursheed Ahmed.